The Human Trafficking Vulnerability (HTV) Project is a research project based at the University of California, Berkeley and York University (Canada). The study employs experimental methods to study the impact of high-quality awareness campaigns (radio, community meetings, posters, and graphic novels) created with the aim of reducing vulnerability to human trafficking. Thus far, data has been collected in Nepal and Hong Kong.

With funding from Humanity United, USAID, US Department of Labor, Stanford University, Terres des Hommes, and Vanderbilt University, the HTV Project has tested the efficacy of these campaigns on the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of populations that are either vulnerable to trafficking and labor exploitation or responsible for mitigating it. This includes the general public, law enforcement agents, employers, and migrant domestic workers.

Click the links below to access materials related to the survey.


Awareness Campaigns


Click on the reports below to read more about HTV’s methodological approach and findings.

Designing an Effective Human Trafficking Awareness Campaign: Lessons from Nepal (June 2018)

An Issue of “Otherness”: Beliefs that Human Trafficking Cannot Affect One’s In-Group Present Obstacle to Combatting Human Trafficking (June 2018)

Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking: An Experimental Intervention using Anti-Trafficking Campaigns to Change Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs and Practices in Nepal (August 2016)

Reducing Vulnerability to Human Trafficking: Research on awareness campaigns in Nepal (2016)

Awareness Campaigns

The research team at UC Berkeley, York University and Empathetic Media generated awareness campaigns used in the HTV Project. These campaigns were designed specifically to test how variations in format (graphic novel, radio, video, and poster), and message content (fact-based, fear-based and empowerment-based) shape efficacy. The fear-based campaigns consistently emphasize negative, “danger signs” throughout each story. These stories raise awareness using fear. In contrast, the empowerment-based version of the campaigns use positive, agency-based plot points. These stories use empowerment to raise awareness. Each format of the campaign covers a range of trafficking types including domestic and cross-border human trafficking as well as sex trafficking, child trafficking, and labor trafficking.  It examines the trafficking of women, girls, men and boys. 

The links below take you to each format of the campaign where you can view, download, and share all the different versions.

Graphic Novel




Graphic Novel

Tricked, Sold and Shunned: Stories of Human Trafficking in Nepal (English)

Danger-based version – contents

Empowerment-based version – contents

Cover for both versions

Tricked, Sold and Shunned: Stories of Human Trafficking in Nepal (Nepali)

Empowerment-based version – contents

Fear-based version – contents

Cover for both versions


1. Meera – empowerment

1. Meera – Danger

2. Suraj – Empowerment

2. Suraj – Danger

3. Sita – Empowerment

3. Sita – Danger

4. Bijay – Empowerment

4. Bijay – Danger

5. Shobha – Empowerment

5. Shobha – Danger

6. Rajiv – Empowerment

6. Rajiv – Danger

Audio Visual Treatment

1. Meera (Cabin Restaurant): Empowerment

1. Meera (Cabin Restaurant): Danger

2. Suraj (Forced Labour): Empowerment

2. Suraj (Forced Labour): Danger

3. Sita (Sex Trafficking): Empowerment

3. Sita (Sex Trafficking): Danger

4. Bijay Empowerment (Child labour): Empowerment

4. Bijay (Child labour): Danger

5. Shoba (Domestic Servitude/Forced Labour): Empowerment

5. Shoba (Domestic Servitude/Forced Labour): Danger

6. Rajiv (Child Sexual Exploitation): Danger

6. Rajiv (Child Sexual Exploitation): Empowerment

7. Manoj (Organ Trafficking): Empowerment

7. Manoj (Organ Trafficking): Danger

8. Sangita (Domestic Servitude): Empowerment

8. Sangita (Domestic Servitude): Danger